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What is the Mandate of Heaven? Which dynast gave us the present name of China? Explain Taoism.?

china history!


  1. The Mandate of Heaven is a traditional Chinese concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Shang Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. Heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, but Heaven would be displeased with an unwise ruler and give the Mandate to someone else.

  2. The Ch’in dynasty is responsible for the name.
    Taoism is a rteligion (or a philosophy, really) developed by Lao Tsu.

  3. The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a basic concept in the development of Confucian philosophy. In Confucius’ writing, the term refers to the moral order of the universe the knowledge of which gives one the right to rule. ( http://www.friesian.com/confuci.htm#six ) But it is Mencius, a disciple of Confucius, that develops the political implications of the Mandate of Heaven that become associate with the Chinese Imperial System. Like Confucius, Mencius believed that the Zhou rulers held their position under the doctrine known as the Mandate of Heaven. In this sense Heaven was thought to be the impersonal authority governing all the operations of the universe and its moral balance. Since the Mandate of Heaven was expressed by the acceptance of a ruler by the people, Mencius stated that if the people rose up and overthrew a tyrant, it was proof that Heaven had withdrawn its mandate. In the name of Heaven, Mencius claimed for the Chinese people the right of rebellion.
    So in the final neo-Confucian sense (the reworking of Classical Chinese philosphy in the Sung Dynasty,) the Emperor ruled by the Mandate of Heaven, the signs of which were the emperor”s personal ethics as indicated by his virtuous administration by scholars of the Confucian classics (the famous imperial service exam of ancient China – which although begun in the sixth century, was first used en masse under the Song dynasty;)
    and by his attention to correct ritual (the worship of the imperial ancestors.) If the emperor was virtuous, then the world was in balance with no floods or droughts or invasion. But if the emperor did not rule in accordance with the mandate of heaven (i.e. without virtue ) then the physical world would be out of synch too and earthquakes, storms, epidemics and disorder would occur. Although this sounds superstitious, it became a sort of “democratic” expectation on the part of the imperial government. A virtuous government planned ahead for drought or flood and undertook water conservancy projects (like the great dikes and flood channels of the Yellow River,) or food storage and relief movement projects (like the grand Canal.) When the government failed to respond to local needs, some group of discontents would rise in rebellion declaring that the ruling dynasty has lost the Mandate of heaven. If they won (like the founder of the Ming dynasty in 1345) this was a sign that they were right, if they lost they were merely outlaws.
    The Mandate of Heaven, Taoism’s yin/yang all of these are parts of the story of Chinese philosophy which is a long (2,500 years) and complex story. try the encarta Chinese philosophy link given above as a starting place and good luck in your studies. Oh and answerer #2 is correct about China and the Ch’in.


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