Home Discussion Forum what hormones are released from the pituitary gland and what aretheir functions?

what hormones are released from the pituitary gland and what aretheir functions?


  1. The pituitary, otherwise known as the Hypothalamus, has both an anterior and posterior hormone releasing regions.
    Posterior – ADH or antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) targets the kidneys and induces water conservation.
    Oxytocin induces uterine contractions during labor and also targets the mammary glands to secrete milk.
    Anterior – ACTH or adrenocorticotropic hormone makes the adrenal cortex release adrenal steroid hormones.
    TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone makes the thyroid gland release thyroid hormones
    FSH- follicle stimulating hormone makes the follicle grow in females and promotes spermatogenesis in males.
    LH – leutinizing hormone stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males
    PRL – prolactin targets the mammary glands to SUSTAIN milk production
    STH (somatotropin) or Growth Hormones (GH) induces protein synthesis and cell division.
    Wow, that was a loaded question. Here you go.

  2. First off, the Hypothalamus and Pituitary glands are different structures. Whoever answered above that they are the same is an idiot. They are very near each other and even joined by connective tissue, but are indeed DIFFERENT STRUCTURES.
    Now that that is out of the way, we’ll look at CORRECT answers for hormone production.
    The pituitary gland produces the following:
    Human growth hormone, which promotes synthesis and secretion of protein hormones that accelerate cell growth and repair.
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone, which stimulates the production of both Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine by the Thyroid.
    Follicle-stimulating hormone targets the ovaries in females and the testes in males. It causes estrogen production in women and stimulates sperm production in men.
    Luteinizing hormone in women stimulates ovulation, causes production of the corpus luteum in the ovary and production of progesterone. In males it stimulates testosterone production.
    Prolactin stimulates lactation, along with a host of other hormones.
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone stimulates production of glucocorticosteroids by the adrenal cortex.
    and finally,
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone… In humans it’s exact role is unknown. It is thought to be influential in brain activity, and in high doses can stimulate darkening of the skin.

  3. The pituitary hormones help control some of the following body processes:
    Blood pressure
    Some aspects of pregnancy and childbirth including stimulation of uterine contractions during childbirth
    Breast milk production
    Sex organ functions in both women and men
    Thyroid gland function
    The conversion of food into energy (metabolism)
    Water and osmolarity regulation in the body.

    SORRY, HOPE THE T W A T READS IT!!> Now for my answer!!!!!
    This gland, also termed the hypophysis cerebri, lies in a bony cavity, the sella turcica, so called because it was thought to resemble a Turkish saddle. It lies under the part of the brain known as the hypothalamus (whose location gives rise to its name, derived from the Greek, hypo meaning under and phyen to grow). It is connected to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk and in man is divided into two lobes, the anterior and the posterior, which develop in the embryo from completely different types of cell. The anterior lobe arises from below – from the same source as the mouth – and is made up of hormone-producing cells; the posterior lobe is developmentally a downward extension of the brain, and contains the endings of nerve fibres that arise from nerve cell bodies in one of two groups of cells (‘nuclei’) in the hypothalamus.
    The anterior pituitary
    contains five different types of cell, each of which produce one particular hormone, with the exception of the ‘gonadotrophs’ which produce two: namely luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). All the hormones are peptide or protein in nature, varying in size from 39 amino acids (ACTH) to 204 amino acids (LH and FSH). The hormones fall into two groups: the first contains the four trophic hormones (from the Greek for nourishment), which control other endocrine glands; the second contains prolactin and growth hormone, which have more widespread effects in the body.
    The trophic hormones act to stimulate secretion of hormone from the target gland and to maintain its function and, if present in high concentrations, will cause the gland to enlarge. They are:
    (i) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the secretion of the thyroid hormones;
    (ii) adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which acts on the adrenal cortex to promote the release of cortisol;
    (iii) gonadotrophins LH and FSH, which act on the ovaries and testes. They are however named after their effects in women; FSH stimulates growth of the ovarian follicle containing the ovum or egg and LH stimulates production of oestrogen and progesterone from the ovary. The actions in the male are analogous; FSH stimulates sperm production and LH stimulates testosterone production by the testes.
    Prolactin acts chiefly to cause milk production in the breasts.
    Growth hormone has widespread effects, necessary not only for growth itself but also for metabolism throughout life.
    Because the pituitary controls so many endocrine functions in the body it has been called ‘the conductor of the endocrine orchestra’, but more recent discoveries suggested that this term more properly belongs to the hypothalamus, with the pituitary being comparable to the leader of the orchestra. Since the nerves going to the anterior pituitary only supply the blood vessels there was some debate as to how the gland was controlled. It is now known that the hypothalamus produces stimulatory and inhibitory hormones, and that these reach the anterior pituitary via a network of small blood vessels or capillaries. The hormones are produced in nerve cells whose endings abut on the capillaries at the top of the pituitary stalk. This control of the pituitary by the central nervous system allows blood concentrations of the hormones to respond to a variety of external stimuli including stress. It also allows for complex patterning of release. Pituitary hormones in general are released in a pulsatile fashion, with many pulses during the day, and they can also show 24 hour (diurnal) rhythms. The gonadotrophins, linked into the human menstrual cycle, show a 28 day rhythm, while in animals which are seasonal breeders prolactin shows a seasonal rhythm. Blood concentrations of pituitary hormones are controlled not only by the hypothalamic hormones but by feedback, usually negative, exerted by target organ hormones such as cortisol or progesterone.
    The posterior pituitary
    Two hormones are released from the posterior lobe, oxytocin and vasopressin (syn. antidiuretic hormone) . These, like the releasing hormones that reach the anterior lobe, are produced within nerve cells in the hypothalamus. But in this case the axons travel right down the pituitary stalk, and the nerve endings release the hormones directly into the bloodstream (see endocrine). The activity of the posterior pituitary hormones was established around 1900 in the UK by Schafer (a physiologist) and his colleagues working on what proved to be the actions of vasopressin, and Dale, a pharmacologist and Nobel Prize winner working on oxytocin. Vasopressin plays a role in water balance and the maintenance of blood pressure, normal circulating concentrations causing water to be retained by the kidney and higher concentrations causing blood vessels to constrict, thus raising blood pressure. As with the anterior pituitary, control via the hypothalamus means that release of posterior pituitary hormones can be regulated by a variety of nervous inputs; the main stimuli for vasopressin release are an increase in the concentration of the blood plasma and a decrease in circulating blood volume, both of which reflect a fall in total body water. Oxytocin is important for the birth of an infant and for delivery of the milk supply.

  5. Not that it answers the question at all, but my two cents was begging to be thrown in… I see quite the little aggressive streak in this answer branch. Not that I agree with either side, but name-calling in an answer forum seems a bit childish, no? First to BigRiff, just because someone doesn’t share the same knowledge base, that’s no reason to call the person idiot. Get over it and just type your version of the answer. Next to Bonzo, it seems to me that instead of answering the question in a reasonable and understandable manner, you simply copied it from a website or directly from a book. Anyone can read a book and sound smart. For one who is raging about someone else’s blurting abuse, it seems a bit hypocritical to do the same in the very next sentence. There’s my two cents… Take it as you will.


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