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What are the four great values of Taoism?

I am doing a research paper & I can’t find it anywhere. Can you please assist me?


  1. Taoism (pronounced and often written as Daoism (dow-ism)) is the English name for a religious and philosophical tradition in China advocating a life of simplicity and noninterference with the course of natural events. While there is a great deal of debate over how (and whether) Taoism should be subdivided, some scholars have divided it into the following three categories.[1]
    Dao Jia [philosophical tao] philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dà o Dé Jīng) and the Zhuangzi;
    a family of organized Chinese religious movements such as the Zhengyi (“Orthodoxy”) or Quanzhen (“complete reality”) sects, which collectively trace back to Zhang Daoling in the late Han Dynasty;
    a Chinese folk religion.[2]
    The Chinese character 道 (pinyin Dà o, Wade-Giles Tao4) “Way”.The English word Taoism is used to translate the Chinese terms Daojiao (道教 “teachings/religion of the Dao”) and Daojia (道家 “school of the Dao”). The character Tao 道 (or Dao, depending on the romanisation scheme) means “path” or “way”, but in Chinese religion and philosophy it has taken on more abstract meanings. The compound Daojiao refers to Daoism as a religion; Daojia refers to the activity of scholars in their studies. It must be noted that this distinction is itself controversial and fraught with hermeneutic difficulty. Many scholars believe that there is no distinction between Daojia and Daojiao, and that the distinction is propagated by people who are not familiar with Taoism.[3]
    Much uncertainty exists over the meaning of Taoism, not least because of its often being confused with such seemingly similar disciplines such as Zen. This is compounded by the fact that one of the most important scholarly works on Taoism in any western language, ‘Taoism and Chinese Religion’ by Henri Maspero, is no longer available in English even though a highly regarded translation was published by the University Of Massachusetts Press in 1981.[4] In some countries and contexts (for example, the Taoism organisations of China and Taiwan), the label is applied to Chinese folk religion, which would otherwise not have a readily recognisable English name. However many, if not most, of its practitioners would not recognise Taoism (in any language) as the name of their religion. Moreover, the several forms of what we might call organised Taoism often distinguish their ritual activities from those of the folk religion, which some professional Taoists (Daoshi) tend to view as debased.
    Chinese alchemy, astrology, cuisine, several Chinese martial arts, Chinese traditional medicine, fengshui, and many styles of qigong breath training disciplines have some relationship with Taoism.
    Contents [hide]
    1 History
    1.1 Han Dynasty (206 BCE—220 CE)
    1.2 Three Kingdoms Period (220—265)
    1.3 Six Dynasties (316—589)
    1.4 Tang Dynasty (618—907)
    1.5 Song Dynasty (960—1279)
    1.6 Yuan Dynasty (1279—1367)
    1.7 Qing Dynasty (1644—1912)
    1.8 Nationalist Period (1912—1949)
    1.9 People’s Republic of China (1949—present)
    2 Adherents
    3 Beliefs
    3.1 Religious Taoism (Daojiao)
    3.2 Philosophical Taoism (Daojia)
    4 Deities
    4.1 Religious Taoism
    4.2 Philosophical Taoism
    5 Practices
    5.1 Religious Taoism
    5.2 Philosophical Taoism
    6 Scriptures
    6.1 Religious Taoism
    6.2 Philosophical Taoism
    7 Taoist symbols and images
    8 Relations with other religions and philosophies
    9 See also
    10 References
    11 Notes
    12 Further reading
    13 External links
    [edit] History
    Depending on how it is defined, Taoism’s origins may be traced to prehistoric Chinese religions in China; to the composition of the Tao Te Ching (3rd or 4th century BCE); or to the activity of Zhang Daoling (2nd century AD). Alternatively, one could argue that Taoism as a religious identity only arose later, by way of contrast with the newly-arrived religion of Buddhism, or with the fourth-century codification of the Shangching and Lingbao texts.[5]
    Other accounts credit Laozi (reputed author of the Tao Te Ching) as the teacher of both Buddha, and Confucius, and alleged Laozi to have had thirteen incarnations starting in the reign of Fuxi, one of the Three August Ones and Five Emperors up until his last as Laozi who lived over 800 years. They describe early Taoism to ancient picture writing, mysticism, and indigenous Ancestor worship. Symbology on tortoise shells predates early Chinese calligraphy and is the basis of written Chinese from artifacts dated from prior to 1600 BCE.
    Legend has it that while passing through the hills of China, Laozi was asked by a bridge keeper to write a book containing his thoughts and beliefs, which yielded the text of Tao Te Ching.
    [edit] Han Dynasty (206 BCE—220 CE)
    In the early Han Dynasty, the Tao came to be associated with or conflated with the Yellow Emperor. A major text from the Huang-Lao movement would be the Huainanzi, which interprets earlier Taoist teachings in light of the quest for immortality (including drugs, sexual practices, and breathing techniques).
    Zhang Daoling claimed to have begun receiving new revelations from Laozi and went on to found the Celestial Masters sect as the “First Celestial Master”. He performed spiritual healing, and collected dues of five pecks of rice from his followers (thus providing an alternative name for his movement). Zhang Daoling’s major message was that the world-order would soon come to an end, and be succeeded by an era of “Great Peace” (Taiping).Their activities did hasten the downfall of the Han Dynasty, largely because Zhang’s grandson set up a theocratic state into what is now Sichuan province. The same could be said of their contemporaries and fellow Taoists, the Yellow Turban sect.[6] Laozi received imperial recognition as a divinity in the mid second century CE.[7] The Yin and Yang and five elements theories date from this time, but were not yet integrated into Taoism.[8]
    The name Daojia comes from the Han Dynasty. In Sima Qian’s history (chapter 63) it refers to immortals; in Liu Xiang it refers to Laozi and Zhuangzi. Daojiao came to be applied to the religious movements mentioned above. The two terms were used interchangeably until modern times. (We owe the distinction to Confucian writers.) The earliest commentary on the Dao De Jing is that of Heshang Gong (the “Riverside Master”), a legendary figure depicted as a teacher to the Han emperor.[9]
    [edit] Three Kingdoms Period (220—265)
    The Xuanxue (Mysterious Wisdom) school, including Wang Bi, focused on the texts of Laozi and Zhuangzi. Many of the school’s members, including Wang Bi himself, were not religious in any sense.[10] Wang Bi mostly focused on reconciling Confucian thought with Taoist thought. Because the version of the Tao Te Ching that has been passed on to the present is the one that Wang Bi commented upon, his interpretations became very influential as they were passed on alongside the Tao Te Ching. In addition, his commentary was compatible with Confucian ideas and Buddhist ideas that later entered China. This compatibility ensured Taoism would remain an important aspect of Chinese culture, and made the merging of the three religions easier in later periods, such as the Tang dynasty.[11]
    [edit] Six Dynasties (316—589)
    Taoist alchemist Ge Hong, also known as Baopuzi (抱扑子 The “Master Embracing Simplicity”) was active in the third and fourth centuries AD and had great influence on later Taoism.[12] Major scriptures were produced during this time period, including The Shangqing (上清 “Supreme Clarity”) (365—370) and Lingbao (靈寶 “Sacred Treasure”) scriptures (397—402) received at Maoshan. The Shangqing revelations were received by Yang Xi, a relative of Ge Hong’s; the revelations emphasised meditative visualisation (內觀 neiguan). They spoke of the Shangqing heaven, which stood above what had been previously considered the highest heaven by Celestial Master Taoists. Yang Xi’s revelations consisted of visitations from the residents of this heaven (the “Zhen Ren”) many of whom were ancestors of a circle of aristocrats from southern China. These Zhen Ren spoke of an apocalypse which was to arrive in 384, and claimed that only certain people from this aristocratic circle had been chosen to be saved. For the first century of its existence, Shangqing Taoism was isolated to this aristocratic circle. However, Tao Hongjing (456—536) codified and wrote commentaries on Yang Xi’s writings and allowed for the creation of Shangching Taoism as a popular religion.[13] The Lingbao scriptures added some Buddhist elements such as an emphasis on universal salvation.[14]
    The Huahujing (化胡經 “Scripture of Conversion of Barbarians”) claimed that Laozi went to India, where he taught less advanced doctrines under the name of Buddha. Buddhists found this claim objectionable, and emperors regularly condemned it. A similar claim is made in the Xishengjing (西升經 the “Scripture of Western Ascension”).
    The oldest known book that details the coming apocolypse was also produced in this period under the name Taishang dongyuan shenzhou jing, or The Divine Incantations Scripture.[15] The earliest portions of the book have been traced back to the beginning of the fifth century. They offered a new route to transcendence that was was different from the Celestial Masters movement it branched off of. The Divine Incantations Scripture sought to clarify the gods are, “in a word, merely the officials of the celestial bureaucracy.”[16] The text was unique for the time in that it promised the aid of celestial “ghost troops” to those who upheld its teachings and acknowledged the dynamic obedience and simultaneous danger of various “daemon kings” that also existed in a fantastical version of the metaphysical world. These characteristics draw interesting parallels with the cosmic and celestial warfare depicted in the Book of Revelations from the Christian New Testament Cannon. The book also urges Daoists to “assiduously convert the unenlightened,” and demands scriptural exclusivity when receiving the Divine Incantations Scripture. [17]
    [edit] Tang Dynasty (618—907)
    Taoism gained official status in China during the Tang Dynasty, whose emperors claimed Laozi as their relative.[18] However, it was forced to compete with Confucianism and Buddhism, its major rivals, for patronage and rank. Emperor Xuanzong (685—762), who ruled at the height of the Tang, wrote commentaries on texts from all three of these traditions, which exemplifies the fact that in many people’s lives they were not mutually exclusive. This marks the beginning of a long-lived tendency within imperial China, in which the government supported (and simultaneously regulated) all three movements.[19]
    Emperor Tang Gaozong added the Tao Te Ching to the list of classics (jing, 經) to be studied for the imperial examinations.[20]
    [edit] Song Dynasty (960—1279)
    Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism, collecting Taoist texts and publishing editions of the Daozang.[21]
    The Quanzhen school of Taoism was founded during this period, and together with the Zhengyi Celestial Masters is one of the two schools of Taoism that have survived to the present.[22]
    The Song Dynasty saw an increasingly complex interaction between the elite traditions of organised Taoism as practised by ordained Taoist ministers (daoshi) and the local traditions of folk religion as practised by spirit mediums (wu) and a new class of non-ordained ritual experts known as fashi.[23] This interaction manifested itself in the integration of ‘converted’ local deities into the bureaucratically organised Taoist pantheon and the emergence of new exorcistic rituals, including the Celestial Heart Rites and the Thunder Rites.[24]
    Aspects of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were consciously synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes.[25]
    [edit] Yuan Dynasty (1279—1367)
    White Cloud Monastery, BeijingNeidan (“Interior Alchemy”) became a major emphasis of the Quanzhen sect, whose practitioners followed a monastic model inspired by Buddhism. One of its leaders, Qiu Chuji became a teacher of Genghis Khan (and used his influence to save millions of lives). Originally from Shanxi and Shandong, the sect established its main center in Beijing’s Baiyunguan (“White Cloud Monastery”).[26] Before the end of the dynasty, the Celestial Masters sect (and Buddhism) again gained preeminence.[27]
    [edit] Qing Dynasty (1644—1912)
    The ruin of the Ming dynasty establishment of the Qing dynasty by the non-Chinese Manchus was blamed by some literati on religion, specifically Taoism. They sought to regain power by advocating a return to Confucian orthodoxy in a movement called Hanxue, or ‘National Studies.’ This movement returned the Confucian classics to favor and completely rejected Taoism. During the eigteenth century, the imperial library was constituted, but excluded virutally all Taoist books.[28] By the beginning of the twentieth century, Taoism had fallen so much from favor, that only one complete copy of the Daozang still remained, at the White Cloud Monastery in Beijing.[29]
    [edit] Nationalist Period (1912—1949)
    Guomindang (China Nationalist Party) leaders embraced science, modernity, and Western culture, including (to some extent) Christianity. Viewing the popular religion as reactionary and parasitic, they confiscated some temples for public buildings, and otherwise attempted to control traditional religious activity.[30]
    [edit] People’s Republic of China (1949—present)
    This section does not cite its references or sources.
    Please help improve this article by introducing appropriate citations. (help, get involved!) This article has been tagged since January 2007.
    The Communist Party of China, officially atheistic, initially suppressed Taoism along with other religions. Much of the Taoist infrastructure was destroyed. Monks and priests were sent to labor camps. This practice intensified during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, nearly eradicating most Taoist sites.
    Deng Xiaoping eventually restored some religious tolerance beginning in 1982. Subsequently, communist leaders have recognised Taoism as an important traditional religion of China and also as a potential lucrative focus for tourism, so many of the more scenic temples and monasteries have been repaired and reopened.
    Taoism is one of five religions recognised by the PRC, which insists on controlling its activities through a state bureaucracy (the China Taoist Association). Sensitive areas include the relationship of the Zhengyi Taoists with their sect’s lineage-holder (he lives in Taiwan); and the status of various traditional temple activities (astrology, shamanism) which have been criticised as “superstitious” or “feudal”.
    [edit] Adherents
    The number of Taoists is difficult to estimate, partly for definitional reasons (who counts as a Taoist?), and partly for practical ones (it is illegal for private parties to conduct surveys in China). The number of people practicing some aspect of the Chinese folk religion might number in the hundreds of millions. (Adherents.com estimates “Traditional Chinese religion” at nearly four hundred million). The number of people patronising Daoshi (Taoist priests or masters) would be smaller by several orders of magnitude, while the number of literary Daojia would be smaller yet. At the same time, most Chinese people and many others have been influenced in some way by Taoist tradition.
    Geographically, Taoism flourishes best in regions populated by Chinese people: inland China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, and various Chinese diaspora communities. Taoist literature and art has influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, and these countries’ folk religions have many common elements. Organized Taoism seems not to have attracted a non-Chinese following until modern times.
    [edit] Beliefs
    Main article: Three Jewels of the Tao
    [edit] Religious Taoism (Daojiao)
    A Taoist Temple in Taiwan. The religious practice of incense burning as well as images of the Fu Dog and Dragon guardian spirits can be seen.Taoism has never been a unified religion and has always consisted of different teachings based on many different original revelations. Therefore different branches of Taoism often have very different beliefs. Nevertheless, there are certain core beliefs that all the schools share.[31]
    Beyond the Chinese folk religion, various rituals, exercises, or substances are said to positively affect one’s physical health (even to the point of immortality); align oneself spiritually with cosmic forces; or enable ecstatic spiritual journeys. These concepts seem basic to Taoism in its elite forms.
    [edit] Philosophical Taoism (Daojia)
    Philosophical Taoism does not refer to one Taoist school or group of philosophers. Philosophical Taoism is a part of Xuanxue and other lineages. Ultimately the distinction between philosophical and religious Taoism is as difficult to define as Taoism itself. Religious Taoists may never have read Laozi or Zhuangzi or any of the Daozang, and being called a Taoist may even seem unfamiliar or artificial.
    Philosophical Taoism emphasizes various themes found in the Tao Te Ching such as “nonaction” (wu wei), emptiness, detachment, the strength of softness (or flexibility), and The Zhuangzi such as receptiveness, spontaneity, the relativism of human ways of life, ways of speaking and guiding behavior. Most philosophical debate concerns dao–what way we should follow, but really, Taoists more directly question what dao is, how or if we can know it and emphasize more than other schools the ways social daos depend on and presuppose natural daos. Their more detached discussion and their reluctance to formulate or advocate a social dao of their own means their discussions tend to be more playful and paradoxical than dogmatic. This makes their tone strikingly different from Confucian and Mohist texts.
    Taoist commentators have been puzzled by the opening lines of the Tao Te Ching, which has usually been translated:
    The way which can be uttered, is not the eternal Way.
    The name which can be named, is not the eternal Name.
    (The original words are
    道可道,非常道。 (dao (ways) can be spoken, not usual ways)
    名可名,非常名。 (names can be named, not usual names))
    In Chinese, “道” or “Dao” is used both as a noun and verb. ‘Way’ works well for the noun, but the translation for the verb “to speak” seems unmatched in meaning, unless we think in terms of “to advocate, to preach, to formulate etc.” Notice in the second line, the noun and verb use of ‘名’ seem closer in meaning, “names” and “to name”. Concretely, a road is a dao–a guide for where to go or how to get where we want to go. However, daos can be marked in other ways–e.g. simply by pointing or putting signs “along the way” etc. Daoists are intrigued both by how daos are made by our walking (wearing a path) and by how we can read what way to go from natural signals (animal paths). The verb probably would be something like pointing, marking, setting an example or otherwise signaling which way to go.
    It should also be noted that while the above has become a standard translation, scholars have noted it is grammatically and conceptually problematic. Grammatically, it has no article so could be read “a/any dao can be dao-ed, (but) this is not the constant dao-ing. A name can be named, (but) this is not the constant naming”. Conceptually, the character for “constant”(常) is used philosophically to describe a dao that does not need to change in different times or societies and reliably guides behavior. Laozi later describes a dao as “reversing” and the texts emphasises opposites, i.e.: high and low, hard and soft, etc. The Mawangdui version of the text contains similar passages, vide: ch.1, 3, 40).
    Thus, any terms we use to advocate a dao can be reversed and still guide behavior. The other term in the title (which, compounded with ‘dao’, formed the Chinese term for ‘ethics’) is ‘de.’. It is “the dao within” which may comprise the capacity we have to learn a way of life and the result of learning/practicing it. De should interpret the learned “way of life” into a correct pattern of behavior–hence its usual translation as “virtue” or “excellence.” Other terms were later integrated into philosophical Taoism including yin and yang (closely related to Dialectical monism) and five elements (五行, wuxing) theories, and the concept of qi. Originally belonging to rival philosophical schools, these themes entered Taoism by way of Han Confucianism which focused on cosmic cycles and portents to guide the ruler’s deportment dress, and so forth. They blend into Daoism as examples of “natural” dao with which any viable human dao must harmonise.
    The way which can be uttered, is not the eternal Way.
    While academic deconstructions of this phrase result in much confusion, there is also a much simpler interpretation by metaphor: The Way is like dancing. You can talk about dancing, but your talk about dancing isn’t the dance itself. Nor does your description really teach someone else how to dance unless they figure out how to apply it for themselves. No matter how complicated the description (words, sketches even video) it always lacks the entirety of what is.
    This interpretation shares Korzybski’s observation that “the map is not the territory”.
    [edit] Deities
    [edit] Religious Taoism
    Traditional Chinese religion is determinedly polytheistic. Its deities are arranged into a heavenly civil service that mirrors the bureaucracy of imperial China. Deities may be promoted or demoted. Many are said to have once been virtuous humans. The particular deities worshipped vary somewhat according to geography, and much more according to historical period (though the general pattern of worship is more constant).[32]
    There is also something of a disconnection between the set of gods which currently receive popular worship, and those which are the focus of elite Taoist texts and rituals. For example, the Jade Emperor is at the head of the popular pantheon, while the Celestial Masters’ altar recognizes the deified Laozi (Laojun, “Lord Lao”) and the Three Pure Ones in that position.[33][34] Some texts explain that Laozi has sponsored the apotheosis of various other gods.
    [edit] Philosophical Taoism
    While a number of immortals or other mysterious figures appear in the Zhuangzi, and to a lesser extent in the Dao De Jing (e.g., the “mysterious female” in chapter 6), these have generally not become the objects of cultic worship. We must not confuse Dao with the western concept of monotheism. The Dao is not personal, nor is it an unchanging spiritual entity similar to the Hindu Atman. The Chinese word Dao can mean a process or a path, but not an entity. It is only to be followed, not to be worshipped. Dao merely means the natural way of the universe. Being one with the Dao does not indicate a union with an eternal spirit in the Hindu sense, but merely live with the change and accept the way of nature; that of impermanence and flexibility. Early texts describe Tao not as equal to “the One”, but as a principle underlying both the One and the Many. One revealing phrase used to describe it is huntun (roughly, “chaotic mixture”). In the wake of Wang Bi, philosophical Taoists have tended to describe it as “nothingness”, which is the origin of “being.” (Cf. the apophatic tendencies of theism, including negative theology.)
    [edit] Practices
    Paper lanterns outside of Taoist Benevolence Temple (Cíhuì Gōng) in Banqiao, Taipei.
    Taoist charm from Tien Hau Temple in San Francisco.
    [edit] Religious Taoism
    Nearly all forms of Chinese traditional religion involve baibai (拜拜)–bowing towards an altar, with a stick of incense in one’s hand. This may be done at home, or in a temple, or outdoors; by an ordinary person, or a professional (such as a Daoshi 道士); and the altar may feature any number of deities or ancestral tablets. Baibai is usually done in accordance with certain dates of the lunar/solar calendar (see Chinese calendar).
    At certain dates, food may be set out as a sacrifice to the gods and/or spirits of the departed. This may include slaughtered pigs and ducks, or fruit. Another form of sacrifice involves the burning of Hell Bank Notes, on the assumption that images thus consumed by the fire will reappear–not as a mere image, but as the actual item–in the spirit world, and be available for the departed spirit to use.
    Also at certain dates, street parades take place. These are lively affairs which invariably involve firecrackers and flower-covered floats broadcasting traditional music. Street parades may also include lion dances and dragon dances; human-occupied puppets (often of the “Seventh Lord” and “Eighth Lord”); jitong (乩童 male “Mediums”) who mutilate their skin with knives; Bajiajiang, which are gongfu-practicing honor guards in demonic makeup; and palanquins carrying god-images. The various participants are not considered performers, but rather possessed by the god in question.[35]
    Fortune-telling–including astrology, palmistry, phrenology, and divination–has long been considered a traditional Taoist pursuit. Mediumship is also widely encountered. We may distinguish between martial forms of mediumship (like the aforementioned jitong) and more literary forms in which the possessed medium communicates messages from the spirit world by writing them with a special utensil.
    Isabelle Robinet’s book Taoist Meditation describes various practices given in the Maoshan texts. These include controlling bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and the breath; visualisation practices in which various internal organs are imaginarily linked with corresponding gods and/or celestial bodies (e.g. the stars of the bei tou, the “Big Dipper”); and heavenly journeys via the Great Pole, which is reached by a limping shamanic dance called the “Step of Wu”.
    [edit] Philosophical Taoism
    The fundamental form of activity among philosophical Taoists seems to be the reading and writing of books. Taoists of this type tend to be civil servants, elderly retirees, or in modern times, university faculty. While there is considerable overlap with religious Taoism, there are often important divergences in interpretation. Wang Bi, one of the most influential philosophical commentators on the Laozi (and Yijing) was in fact a Confucian.[36]
    For many educated Chinese people (the Literati), life was divided into a social aspect, where Confucian doctrine prevailed, and a private aspect, with Taoist aspirations. Night-time, exile, or retirement provided the opportunity to cultivate Taoism and reread Laozi and Zhuangzi. The Literati often dedicated this period of life to arts such as calligraphy, painting, and poetry, or personal researches into antiquities, medicine, folklore, and so on.
    The Vinegar Tasters (sometimes called Three Vinegar Tasters) is a popular painting (usually in scroll format) that explained Taoist ideals in relation to the Neo-Confucian school which began in the 10th century and gained prominence in the 12th century. The image depicts Laozi together with The Buddha, and Confucius. In these paintings the three are gathered around a vat of vinegar and the motto associated with the grouping is “the three teachings are one.” However, see The Vinegar Tasters for an alternate interpretation.
    A number of martial arts traditions embody Taoist principles to a greater or lesser extent, and some practitioners consider their art to be a means of practicing Taoism. The accuracy of these claims varies greatly depending on the particular art and/or practitioner.
    [edit] Scriptures
    Taoist Priest in Macau, February 2006
    [edit] Religious Taoism
    The Daozang (道藏, Treasury of Tao) is sometimes referred to as the “Taoist canon.” It was compiled during the Jin, Tang, Song, and Ming dynasties, and includes almost 1500 texts. Following the example of the Buddhist Tripitaka, it is divided into three dong æ´ž (“caves”, often translated “grottoes”), arranged here from highest to lowest:
    (1) The Zhen (“real”) grotto. Includes the Shangqing texts.
    (2) The Yuan (“primordial”) grotto. Includes the Lingbao scriptures.
    (3) The Shen (“divine”) grotto. Includes texts predating the Maoshan revelations.
    The Tao Te Ching constitutes an appendix (fu) to the first grotto. Other appendices include the Taipingjing (“Scripture of Great Peace”) as well as various alchemical texts, and scriptures from the Celestial Masters tradition.
    However, Taoism is not a religion which regards the scripture as the primary source of truth. Daoshi generally do not consult published versions of the Daozang, but use texts which have been passed down from teacher to student (who are often relatives). The receipt of permission to do the ritual is considered more important than knowledge of the texts’ contents.
    The Shangqing school does have a tradition of approaching Taoism through scriptural study, with recitation of certain texts was often enough for an adherent to gain immortality.[37]
    Some Chinese movements emphasise newly-revealed scriptures. In Taiwan, one often finds Buddhist texts being chanted in Taoist temples.
    [edit] Philosophical Taoism
    Philosophical Taoism has focused on the Dao De Jing and the Zhuangzi, and to a lesser extent the Liezi.[38] This form of Taoism, more than any other, has influenced Western commentators. Much of the philosophy of Taoism is derived from the following passage:
    The Tao is unknown
    And you need not know it.
    [edit] Taoist symbols and images
    TaijituThere are many Symbols and Images that are associated with Taoism. Like in Christianity the “cross”, and in Buddhism the “wheel”, Taoism has Laozi, actual Chinese characters, and many other symbols that are often represented or associated with it.
    Many people associate the Taijitu symbol 太極圖 as well as the Bagua 八卦 (“Eight Trigrams”) with Taoist symbolism. While almost all Taoist organisations make use of it, one could also call it Confucian, Neo-Confucian or pan-Chinese. The yin and yang border should make a backwards “S” shape, with yang (white or red) on top. One is likely to see this symbol as decorations on Taoist organisation flags and logos, temple floors, or stitched into clerical robes.
    Taoist temples may fly square or triangular flags. These are not merely decorative but function as talismans, and typically feature mystical writing or diagrams. Often a tree branch is used as a flagpole.
    One sometimes sees a zigzag with seven stars, representing the Big Dipper (or the “Bushel”, the Chinese equivalent). Taoists see the North and South Poles as divine.
    Taoist temples in southern China and Taiwan may often be identified by their roofs, which feature Chinese dragons and phoenixes made from multi-colored ceramic tiles. They also stand for the harmony of yin and yang (with the phoenix being yin). A related symbol is the flaming pearl which may be seen on such roofs between two dragons, as well as on the hairpin of a Celestial Master.[39]
    [edit] Relations with other religions and philosophies
    The origins of Taoism and other philosophical schools are intimately related. The authorship of the Daodejing is assigned to Laozi, traditionally thought to be a teacher of Confucius, yet appears to be reacting against Confucian doctrine (suggesting the text comes after Confucianism). Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu), the other defining philosopher of Daoism, reacted both to the Confucian-Mohist ethical disputes and to related developments in theory of names (language). There is little evidence of a link between Laozi and Zhuangzi–whose most frequent interactions are with Hui Shi (of the school of names). However, the chapters of the Zhuangzi written after his death include dialogues between Laozi and Confucius that mimic (or inspire?) the style of the Daodejing, suggesting the first association of the two texts dates from around that time. The “history of thought” contained in the Zhuangzi cites Laozi as a prior step (and demotes Hui Shi to a postscript). It includes the Mohists by name and the Confucians by implication and a cluster of other less well known thinkers.
    The terms Dao and De (virtue/excellence) are shared terms of debate in this period. Most of the texts of ancient Chinese philosophy argued for some dao or other and advocated cultivating de in that favored dao. While dao was initially ethical-social norms, it quickly broadened to include the norms of language use and of claiming or attributing knowledge. This broadening dialectic about dao is what warrants describing the views of Laozi and Zhuangzi as Daoism. Daoism represents the view that the norms for language, knowledge, ethics and society are grounded in and continuous with natural norms. So any discussion of dao and de involves us in reflections on the nature of human society and its place in the universe as a whole.
    These early Taoist texts reject numerous basic assumptions of Confucianism, embracing instead values based on nature, perspectivalism, and spontaneity. They express skepticism of conventional moralities and Mozi’s Utilitarian or Mencius’ benevolence based revisions. Since politics was conceived by these traditional schools as a scheme for unifying all “under the sky” in their favored dao, Taoists tend toward anarchism, mistrustful of hierarchical social structures and particularly, governments. (Zhuangzi argues that the proponents of benevolence and morality are usually found at the gates of feudal lords who have stolen their kingdoms.) Although philosophical Taoist appear to be anarchist, it is clearly an over statement. Mitigated Anarchism would better categorise the philosophical Taoists, they tend to believe in the idea that the government should act in a ‘non acting’ or ‘wu wei’ manner. This means that they should only act when necessary and their actions should not be felt directly by the people, nor should they be visible to the people. Chapters 57-81 of the Dao De Ching all deal with government, ruling, and appeasing the people.
    Taoist thought partly inspired Legalist philosophers, whose theories were used by Qin Shi Huang, founder of the Chinese Empire. The junction point can be found in the work of Hanfeizi, a prominent Legalist thinker who commented on the Tao Te Ching. Hanfeizi used some chapters of the book to justify a structured society based on law and punishment and on the undiscussed power of the Emperor.
    The entry of Buddhism into China was via its dialectic with later Taoism which transformed them both. Over the centuries of Chinese interactions, Buddhism gradually found itself transformed from a competitor of Taoism, to a fellow inhabitant of the Chinese cultural ecosystem.[40] Originally seen as a kind of foreign Taoism, its scriptures were translated into Chinese with Taoist vocabulary. Chan Buddhism in particular is inspired by crucial elements of philosophical Taoism, ranging from distrust of scripture, text and language to its more positive view of “this life”, practice, skill and the absorption in “every-moment”. In the Tang period Taoism incorporated such Buddhist elements as monasteries, vegetarianism, prohibition of alcohol, the celibacy of the clergy, the doctrine of emptiness, and the amassing of a vast collection of scripture into tripartite organisation.[41]
    Ideological and political rivals in ancient times, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism have inevitably deeply influenced one another, and eventually achieved a kind of modus vivendi in which each has its own particular ecological niche within Chinese society. With time, most Chinese people likewise came to identify to some extent with all three traditions simultaneously. This became institutionalised by the time of the Song Dynasty, when aspects of the three schools were consciously synthesised in the Neo-Confucian school, which eventually became Imperial orthodoxy for state bureaucratic purposes.
    Taoism up till early twentieth century maintained a school with gifted practioners with special powers including knowldege of Alchemy and Exorcism as a means to mend the ills of its followers but subsequently this was subjugated as myth and superstitions, leading to beliefs that they were shamanic practices from ancient Chinese traditions.
    In spreading Catholic Christianity to China, Jesuit Matteo Ricci sought to ally the Church with Confucianism. In so doing the Jesuits encouraged the view that China lacked a high religion of its own (since Confucianism was not regarded as such). This was only a contemporary view, as neither Confucianism nor Taoism can be moulded into establishments directly comparable to Catholicism in its post Middle Ages expansionism. Until well into the twentieth century, Christians have tended to view religious Taoism as a hodgepodge of primitive superstitions, or even as a form of demonolatry due to insufficient understanding.
    In the last century or so, Taoism (along with Confucianism and Buddhism) has become incorporated into the theology of the Way of Former Heaven sects, notably Yiguandao however this annexation is not a sanctioned move. The same could be said with respect to Vietnam’s religion of Caodaism.
    Western New Agers have embraced some aspects of Taoism: the name and concept of Dao, the names and concepts of yin and yang; an appreciation for Laozi and Zhuangzi, and a respect for other aspects of Chinese tradition such as qigong. At the same time, Western appropriations differ in subtle (or not so subtle) ways from their Asian sources. For example, the word Dao is used in numerous book titles which are connected to Chinese culture only tangentially. Examples would include Fritjof Capra’s The Tao of Physics, or Benjamin Hoff’s The Tao of Pooh.
    Taoism has also been a resource for those in environmental philosophy, who see the non-anthropocentric nature of Taoism as a guide for new ways of thinking about nature and environmental ethics. Some consider Taoism to fit naturally with the radical environmental philosophy of deep ecology. Daoism and Ecology: Ways Within A Cosmic Landscape edited by N. J. Girardot, James Miller, and Liu Xiaogan is currently the most thorough introduction to studies done on concepts of nature and ecology within Taoism.

  2. This site lists 4 values:
    deviated from the Taoist values of individual freedom, toleration of diversity, non-imperialism, and peace.
    This site lists 6 values:
    Taoist Values: (deeply influenced Chinese scholars and artists)
    · Creative Quietude — Wuwei — effortless, inaction
    · Rejecting all forms of self assertiveness and competition
    · Naturalism — seeking to be in tune with nature, made a deep impression on Chinese art — Landscape paintings (Mountain/Water).
    · Simplicity — avoid propriety and extravagance
    · Relativity of all values — polarity of Yin and Yang
    · Pacifism — averse to violence

  3. You use it to dry off.
    You lay on it at the beach.
    You can wrap it around you when you get out of the shower.
    If you get it wet you can whip people with it.

  4. Actually Taoism is a collection of about 15 different sects of Taoism. Many of them disagree with other forms of Taoism.
    Someone borrowed text from some place (probably wikipedia)
    If you really want to understand Taoism; get a copy of “The Shambhalla Guide To Taoism” by Eva Wong.
    This book will teach you about the different sects of Taoism, and what each of them believe. long with history pf where and how each sect came into being.

  5. Greetings! Is it okay that I go a bit off topic? I am trying to view your domain on my Macbook but it doesn’t display properly, do you have any suggestions? Thank you for the help I hope! Irvin


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