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Paganism was not very common in the 1600s, there were some old practices such as celebrating Easter around. Paganism had mainly been stomped out by the 17th century. Most modern “pagan” religions have made up a fictional european paganism that continued to exist. Unfortunately, it isn’t true. Most people were christians, and a few others were muslims or jews.
Well if you mean country dweller, which is what Pagan means, then I could name a few. There were the Early English Settlers who came over with somewhat Pagan/Christian beliefs. You see back then it was considered heresy to even think to worship another god or hell, do any kind of magic or superstition. So in order to keep it up and going without problems, it simply went under the veil of Christianity.
If you want a good example of a slave day Tradition that has stood the tests of time, I invite you to check out a magical tradition called “Hoodoo”. It’s an african-disporia tradition with it’s roots in Pre-Christian African Paganism. It’s very interesting. It’s also interesting to notice the veil of Christianity over it in order to keep it acceptable.
Some pagan holidays are very close to Christian ones.
Yule, for example, falls on December 21st. The story goes that the 21st is when the Goddess gives birth to the God and is a rebirthing time. Gifts are involved and in Pagan Norse mythology there is someone called the Holly King, or “Old Nick”. I’m not altogether sure about it being in the 1600s, but paganism is a very old religion.
When Christianity started to rule, and pagans were discouraged from practicing their religion, the Christians built the churches on pagan sites in order to supposedly make the conversion to Christianity easier for the pagans. I don’t know if they opened practiced in Colonial America, I suspect so, but in light of what happened in Salem I imagine nobody advertised being a witch or a pagan. I believe that paganism might have been more popular in Europe.
Unless you are counting the Native Americans, pretty much nada. Though some of the TRADITIONS lived, the belief systems were dead. Romonov has the best arguement but that it’s proven an unbroken tradition. The 1700’s showed a revival of the older pagan beliefs with the discovery of the Codex Regus.