What do you think were the most important concepts taught by Socrates?
I believe that the necessity of doing what one thinks is right, and seeking knowledge in the face of opposition were two of his most important teachings... What are your thoughts?
Your answer is close to mine, but I'd go a bit further towards praising the socratic method a bit, to wit:
It is in language (at times) that the underlying truth of a troubling or difficult quandary can lie. Socrates used language to spur thought, and used language to counter erroneous thought.
"What do you call someone who works with ships?"
"A shipmason" (or whatever)
"And is the job of a shipmason to tend to the welfare of his ships?"
"Why, yes, of course it is."
"What do you call someone who works with students?"
"And is it ..." and so on.
Following the flow of a socratic dialog can be enlightening in and of itself.
While this is not a concept (my thesis advisor told me that when philosophy students use the word "concept" what they mean is "thing I don't know what it is") per se, it is something that Socrates has passed down.
Socrates' teachings were that self-examination is as important as external criticism, and that if the two conflict, one must be wrong. Probably the latter.
Well, his socratic method was in many ways the precursor of the scientific method.
Socrates' belief in the immortality of the soul, and his conviction that the gods had singled him out as a divine emissary seemed to provoke if not annoyance, at least ridicule. Socrates also questioned the Sophistic doctrine that arete (that is, virtue) can be taught. He liked to observe that successful fathers (such as the prominent military general Pericles) did not produce sons of their own quality. Socrates argued that moral excellence was more a matter of divine bequest than parental nurture. This belief may have contributed to his lack of anxiety about the future of his own sons.
Socrates seems to have often said that his wisdom was limited to an awareness of his own ignorance. Socrates may have believed that wrongdoing was a consequence of ignorance, that those who did wrong knew no better. The one thing Socrates consistently claimed to have knowledge of was "the art of love" which he connected with the concept of "the love of wisdom", i.e., philosophy. He never actually claimed to be wise, only to understand the path that a lover of wisdom must take in pursuing it.
Socrates believed that the best way for people to live was to focus on self-development rather than the pursuit of material wealth.