in other cultures where shamanism is practiced altered states of consciousness is seen as a sort of gift where the person has a gift to unlock his unconscious, then eventually the collective conscious and even, in some cultures, alternate spiritual realms. Do you think this is all rubbish. It seems Western medicine does. I can hardly believe that we know everything there is to know about psychotic or trance-like or meditative states. It seems some of these so-called primitive cultures weren’t all that primitive after all.